O-RAN ALLIANCE Summit - Accelerating Open RAN Adoption
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O-RAN ALLIANCE Introduces 52 New Specifications Released since March 2022

O-RAN ALLIANCE has published a new set of 52 specifications for open and intelligent RAN, as the first batch of the O-RAN Release 003 specifications. Among them there are 12 new titles:

  • O-RAN Massive MIMO Use CasesTechnical Report v1.0
  • O-RAN Transport Protocols forR1 Services v1.0
  • O-RAN R1 Use Cases andRequirements v1.0
  • O-RAN E2 Interface TestSpecification v1.0
  • O-RAN O2dms InterfaceSpecification: Kubernetes Native API Profile for Containerized NFs v1.0
  • O-RAN O2dms Interface Specification:Profile based on ETSI NFV Protocol and Data Models v1.0
  • O-RAN Acceleration AbstractionLayer Common API v1.0
  • O-RAN Acceleration AbstractionLayer AAL Profile - MUMIMO Precoder/BeamFormer Calculation v1.0
  • O-RAN Hardware Reference DesignSpecification for Outdoor Macro Cell with Split Architecture Option 7.2 v1.0
  • O-RAN Study on Security forNon-RT-RIC v1.0
  • O-RAN Study on Security forO-CLOUD v1.0
  • O-RAN Study on Security forNear Real Time RIC and xApps v1.0

Another40 technical documents have been updated with extensions and new features.

A brief overview of all specifications in this set is provided below. To access the O-RAN specifications, please visit our website at www.o-ran.org/specifications.

O-RAN Logical Architecture – July 2021

WG1: Use Cases and Overall Architecture Work Group

4 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Slicing Architecture v7.0

This document describes O-RAN slicing related use cases, requirements and architecture. Along with requirements and a reference slicing architecture, slicing related impact to O-RAN functions and interfaces is also captured. This version includes updates to O-NSSI allocation and deallocation procedures to reflect O-Cloud developments. It also updates Annex B to capture the latest approach and the updated phases for Transport Network slicing aspects.

O-RAN Use Cases Analysis Report v8.0

This document describes potential O-RAN use cases at a very high level, emphasizing how the use case is enabled by the O-RAN architecture along with basic input data expected and resultant actions. This particular version includes two new use cases, “Shared O-RU” and “Energy Saving”, as well as updates to QoE optimization use case based on RAN Analytics Information Exposure feature.

O-RAN Use Cases Detailed Specification v8.0

This document describes selected O-RAN use cases in detail to facilitate the definition of requirements and associated interfaces specs by related work groups. This version includes a new use case, “Local indoor positioning”, and updates QoE optimization use case based on RAN Analytics Information Exposure feature.

O-RAN Massive MIMO Use Cases Technical Report v1.0

This new title captures the outcome of the Massive MIMO pre-normative phase, including the following:

  • Requirements, key issues, proposed solutions, benefits of the massive MIMO enhancements
  • Potential impact and required enhancements to O-RAN interfaces E2, O1, A1, OFH M-plane, OFH CUS-Plane, R1 and Near-RT RIC API
  • Potential impact and required enhancements on data models of all O-RAN entities
  • Impact on Non-RT RIC architecture, Near-RT RIC architecture and AI/ML workflow

WG2: The Non-real-time RAN Intelligent Controller and A1 Interface Work Group

8 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Non-RT RIC & A1 Interface: Use Cases and Requirements v6.0

This version includes load balancing related updates to RANSlice SLA assurance use case, and a set of three Massive MIMO Optimization use cases:

  • Massive MIMO Grid-of-Beams Beamforming (GoB BF) Optimization use case
  • Massive MIMO Non-GoB Beamforming (Non-GoB BF) Optimization use case
  • MIMO optimization via downlink transmit power optimization, Mu-MIMO pairing, andMIMO mode selection use case

O-RAN Non-RT RIC Architecture v2.0

This version added descriptions for Service Management & Exposure services and functions, Data Management & Exposure services and functions, A1 related services and functions, O1 related services and functions, O2 related services and functions. Procedures for Data Management & Exposure, as well as A1 EI results collection from rApps, are also provided.

O-RAN R1 interface: General Aspects and Principles v2.0

This version added descriptions and procedures for A1 policy management services, Query related procedures to O2 Infrastructure management service. The descriptions and procedures for Data Management and exposure services are updated as well.

O-RAN R1 Use Cases and Requirements v1.0

This new title added use cases for Service management and exposure services, including rApp registration, Service registration, Discovery of services, and Subscription of Service availability.

O-RAN Transport Protocols for R1 Services v1.0

This new title introduces the REST Protocol as part of R1 Services.

O-RAN A1 interface: Application Protocol v3.02

This version enhances alignment and consistency between A1-P and A1-EI Open APIs.

O-RAN A1 interface: Type Definitions v3.0

This version introduces a new policy type for Load balancing.

O-RAN A1 interface: Test Specification v2.0

This version introduces A1-EI conformance test cases for Non-RT RIC and Near-RT RIC.

WG3: The Near-real-time RAN Intelligent Controller and E2 Interface Work Group

5 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Near-Real-time RAN Intelligent Controller Architecture & E2 General Aspects and Principles v2.02

This version provides minor corrections and a clarification regarding the use of RIC services REPORT and INSERT.

O-RAN Near-Real-time RAN Intelligent Controller, E2 Application Protocol (E2AP) v2.02

This version provides minor corrections to the use of Global gNB ID and MAX limits, as well as clarifications regarding RIC Service Query, RIC Control Failure, and RIC Service Update Ack.

O-RAN Near-Real-time RAN Intelligent Controller E2 Service Model (E2SM) KPM v2.02

This version adds new parameters and additional testing conditions for the configuration of UE grouping, e.g. SINR, CQI, Packet Loss, QoS parameters, S-NSSAI, etc.

O-RAN Near-Real-time RAN Intelligent Controller E2 Service Model (E2SM), RAN Control v1.02

This version provides corrections/fixes in RAN Function definition, RAN Parameter table, enhancement of multiple actions for insert/control request, and Measurement Report Configuration.

O-RAN E2 Interface Test Specification v1.0

This new title specifies test configurations and test cases for E2 interface testing including conformance testing of the Near- RT RIC over E2 interface, conformance testing of the E2 Nodes over E2 interface, and interoperability testing of Near-RT RIC and E2 Nodes over E2 interface.

WG4: The Open Fronthaul Interfaces Work Group

4 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Management Plane Specification v9.0 including Yang models v9.0

Extensive clean-up of the entire document to align with ETSI/O-RAN drafting rules:

  • Switched to new O-RAN defined template
  • Aligned all external references
  • Aligned use of modal verbs

Clarifications on:

  • Rejection of invalid configuration
  • Handling of O-RU capable of BF and non-BF modes
  • NACM user management
  • NETCONF monitoring
  • Reset handling
  • NETCONF event streams
  • Software management
  • SSH and SFTP host keys

Corrections on:

  • eventName in remote-file-path
  • S-Plane interactions

Introduced new capabilities on:

  • Handling 4 byte alignment for section type 6
  • New build-content-download option for software management
  • New historical alarm list capability
  • Defining loopback messages to group destination addresses

O-RAN Control, User and Synchronization Plane Specification v9.0

Extensive language clean-up of the entire document to align with ETSI/O-RAN drafting rules:

  • Harmonized and consistent specification of normative and informative parts
  • References clearly labelled and added missing references
  • Formatting of the document and clause structure updates

Added security related enhancements for fronthaul.

Additional capabilities and formatting for Section Type 6.

Clarifications on:

  • Selective RE mask sending
  • Beam weight update rules

Correction of slot definition.

O-RAN Conformance Test Specification v5.0

Align to OFH spec versions CUS.0-v08.00 and MP.0-v08.00:

  • Previous revision was aligned to version 06.00 for both specifications above
  • 4 existing test cases were impacted by CUS-plane updates
  • M-Plane test cases added for TLS in addition to existing SSH support

TLS conformance tests added to existing “Call Home” SSH-based tests,

Corrections to Mandatory or Conditional Mandatory status to facilitate TIFG certification:

  • LTE tests were incorrectly identified as Mandatory for all Radios

Include 17 CRs submitted by both operators and vendors:

  • Most address corrections and clarifications from companies creating or running tests for TIFG Certification

O-RAN Fronthaul Interoperability Test Specification (IOT) v7.0

CR and text proposals and editorial updates

Correct M-Plane tests to use IPv6/TLS (VIA-0007)

Add M-Plane hybrid mode profile IPv6/TLS (VIA-0008)

WG5: The Open F1/W1/E1/X2/Xn Interface Work Group

4 specification published since March 2022

O-RAN NR C-plane profile v7.0

The scope of this spec is to further clarify (i.e. profile) the expected behavior for each RAN node, still within the scope of the 3GPP specifications. Examples include the usage of IEs for each use case, general behavior of each node, etc. It contains profiles of X2/F1/Xn C-Plane procedure for EN-DC use cases, NR-SA use cases, and NR-DC use cases.

This version adds the optional use of dual connectivity-based PDCP duplication to NR-DC use cases. It also contains a number of corrections.

O-RAN O1 Interface specification for O-DU v4.0 including Yang models v4.0 and Annex D tables

The scope of this spec is to specify the interface that links O-DU to the Service Management and Orchestration (SMO) framework. It is focused on O-DU management operations, performance counters, fault supervision, software management, synchronization management, and configuration parameters.

This version includes the following updates:

  • Rework of PNF PnP section
  • Addition of O-DU Trace Management chapter
  • Updates to PM counters to refer to 3GPP PM counters correctly
  • Editorial updates and alignment with the latest O1 Interface spec

O-RAN Interoperability Test Specification (IOT) v4.0

The scope of this spec is to specify interoperability tests for RAN Node from different vendors implemented in accordance to the X2/F1/Xn  C-plane and U-plane profiles.

This version focuses on:

  • X2 interoperability testing between eNB and en-gNB
  • F1 interoperability testing between gNB-CU and gNB-DU
  • Xn interoperability testing among gNBs

Additional updates include corrections, clarifications, and minor editorial corrections.

O1 Interface specification for O-CU-UP and O-CU-CP v3.0 including Yang models v3.0

The scope of this spec is to specify the interface that links O-CU-CP and O-CU-UP to the Service Management and Orchestration (SMO) framework. It is focused on O-CU management operations, performance counters, fault supervision, software management, and configuration parameters. This version includes the addition of O-CU Trace Management chapter, updates to PM counters to correctly refer to 3GPP PM counters, editorial updates, and alignment with latest O1 Interface spec.

WG6: The Cloudification and Orchestration Work Group

11 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Cloud Architecture and Deployment Scenarios for O-RAN Virtualized RAN v3.0

This specification introduces and examines different scenarios and use cases for O-RAN deployments of Network Functionality into Cloud Platforms, O-RAN Cloudified NFs and O-RAN Physical NFs. The new version introduces synchronization updates and definition of the O-Cloud Gateway, in conjunction with the Network Slicing support.

O-RAN O2ims Interface Specification v2.0

This specification outlines the infrastructure management services of the O2 interface. This version introduces fault information model and services, and extensions to infrastructure service objects.

O-RAN O2dms Interface Specification: Kubernetes Native API Profile for Containerized NFs v1.0

This is a new title that specifies the deployment management services of the O2dms interface profile based on Kubernetes Native API for containerized NFs. This initial version introduces support for instantiation and termination.

O-RAN O2dms Interface Specification: Profile based on ETSI NFV Protocol and Data Models v1.0

This is a new title that specifies the deployment management services of the O2dms interface profile based on ETSI NFV protocol and data models. This initial version introduces support for instantiation, termination, and query.

O-RAN O-Cloud Notification API Specification for Event Consumers v.2.01

This document describes a REST API that allows Event Consumers (EC) such as a vO-DU or CNF to subscribe to events/status from the O-Cloud. This version provides clarifications and corrections for synchronization.

O-RAN Acceleration Abstraction Layer General Aspects and Principle v3.0

This version includes substantial updates to introduce a framework and architecture for common AAL APIs against the cloud management layer (AALi-C-Mgmt) as well as the AAL application (AALi-C-App). These common APIs are used to manage the lifecycle of the accelerator and its profiles by the cloud and the AAL application. This version also includes a new AAL profile for offloading precoding/beam-forming calculations by the AAL application.

O-RAN Acceleration Abstraction Layer Common API v1.0

This is a new title that defines the architecture and specifications for the AAL common API which is to be used by all AAL acceleration profiles. The AAL Common API provides management capabilities towards the cloud platform for managing the accelerator, provides lifecycle management capabilities for allocating and deallocation accelerator resources, and fault and performance service assurance functions. It also defines an application API to enable the AAL application to instantiate and configure AAL profiles allocated from the accelerator as well as a transport abstraction to allow the application to invoke the accelerator’s capabilities in a vendor neutral manner. This version of the specification focusses on architecture and stage 2 aspects.

O-RAN Acceleration Abstraction Layer FEC Profile v2.0

This version completes the FEC acceleration profile by including a stage 3 application API specification header file that is hosted in a O-RAN OSC repo to enable use by open source communities under a BSD license.

O-RAN Acceleration Abstraction Layer High-PHY Profile v2.0

This version completes the stage 2 specification through addition of UL and DL configuration parameters. It is extended to support offload of beam-forming computation by the AAL application to deliver advanced UE pairing capabilities for MU-MIMO. Moreover, it also defines stage 2 aspects of the Hi-PHY profile.

O-RAN Acceleration Abstraction Layer AAL Profile - MUMIMO Precoder/BeamFormer Calculation v1.0

This is a new AAL acceleration profile to allow an AAL DU application to offload computation of precoding and beam-forming weights for MU-MIMO to an accelerator. This version of the specification includes stage 2 aspects of the MU-MIMO BF/Precoder profile.

O-RAN Cloudification and Orchestration Use Cases and Requirements for O-RAN Virtualized RAN v4.0

This specification defines different use cases for O-RAN orchestration and cloudification of virtualized RAN functions, and associated requirements on the interfaces used for management and orchestration such as the O2 interface. The new version adds several new use cases, including Network Slice Creation and Deletion, K8s Cluster Creation, as well as additional Performance Monitoring and Fault Management use cases.

WG7: The Cloudification and Orchestration Work Group

1 specification published since March 2022

O-RAN Hardware Reference Design Specification for Outdoor Macro Cell with Split Architecture Option 7.2 v1.0

This new title introduces the O-RAN Hardware Reference Design for outdoor Macrocell FR1 with Split Architecture Option 7-2 (V1). It describes one white box example for outdoor deployments. Complete reference designs for O-CU, O-DU7-2, and O-RU7-2 are provided.

WG8: Stack Reference Design Work Group

2 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Base Station O-DU and O-CU Software Architecture and APIs v6.0

This version adds support of 3GPP Release 16 based massive MIMO and O-RAN optimization of mMIMO feature, in alignment with MVP feature definition. Other minor corrections and API updates are also included.

O-RAN Stack Interoperability Test Specification v4.0

This version adds test cases related to RAN slicing configuration and slicing functionalities, O1 configuration, and Inter-O-DU handover.

WG9: Open X-haul Transport Work Group

2 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Xhaul Packet Switched Architectures and Solutions v3.0

The document is intended to describe best practices for O-RAN transport based on end-to-end packet switching technology. It delivers updates related to RAN Slicing Phase 2 feature plan in Annex F.

O-RAN Management interfaces for Transport Network Elements v4.0

This document provides best practices for O-RAN Transport Network Element (TNE) management interfaces. Generic requirements are given in section 6 and 7 for these interfaces, and then, informative content on device, network and service interfaces are included in section 8 and 9. Section 9 presents controller architectures and management interfaces for RAN Slicing Phase 2.

WG10: OAM Work Group

3 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Operations and Maintenance Architecture v7.0

This version adds an Alarm Dictionary section to the Architecture Principles, adds some clarifications to the description of the O-RU management via M-Plane, and updates terminology for the Common App LCM Application Package Model.

O-RAN Operations and Maintenance Interface Specification v7.0

This version of O1 specification incorporates the following approved CRs:

  • PM Streaming Format Correction
  • 3GPP specified Notification VES format support
  • Annex C Streaming Trace Management
  • PNF Registration Notification
  • Rearrange PNF Reset Notification Requirements
  • Clarify counter naming requirement
  • Notification capability

This document also includes the following content:

  • Clarifications on the use of VES notifications
  • Correction of Streaming Trace Management details
  • Clarification of the PNF registration details
  • Introduction of the new o1NotifyPNFRegistration notification
  • Correction of the Streaming PM format
  • Clarification of the PM counter naming format

O-RAN Information Model and Data Models Specification v3.0

This version includes:

  • Editorial correction
  • References updates
  • Papyrus installation description update
  • Abbreviations update

WG11: Security Work Group

Effective on June 23, 2022 O-RAN has converted the former Security Focus Group (SFG) into O-RAN’s 11th technical Work Group to allow even more intensive specification effort in the field of security.

6 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Study on Security for Non-Real-Time RIC v1.0

This new title provides a security analysis for the Non-RT RIC Framework, rApps, R1 interface and A1 interface. Twenty-six threats were identified through the threat modeling process. The risk assessment process addressed the likelihood of attack and impact to confidentiality, integrity, availability, and authenticity. Likelihood scores considered internal and external threats consistent with a zero trust architecture. Recommended security controls are provided to mitigate each identified threat.

O-RAN Study on Security for O-CLOUD v1.0

The technical report on the security analysis of O-Cloud published during the march train analyzes the following topics:

  • The O-Cloud critical services that need to be protected and maintained
  • The different cloud service and deployment models from security perspectives
  • A high-level risk assessment of the cloud deployment models, namely Private, Community, Public and Hybrid deployments
  • The main stakeholder roles and responsibilities involved in managing and using O-Cloud
  • The critical assets to be protected in terms of CIA
  • The threat model according to ISO 27005 and STRIDE methodologies: attack surface, threats, threatened assets, and vulnerabilities
  • The appropriate best practices, and recommendations that have to be taken for countering the identified threats

O-RAN Study on Security for Near-Real-Time RIC and xApps v1.0

This new title covers the security aspects of the Near-RT RIC platform and xApps, as well as the associated network and management interfaces (E2, A1, O1) and APIs. The initial version discusses 11 key issues, each covering a particular problem area, and provides 13 solutions, each of which proposes changes to existing document such as the security requirements specification and the security protocols specification, but also specifications maintained by WG3. It also provides a mapping table explaining which solutions would solve which key issues.

O-RAN Security Requirements Specification v3.0

This version features specification covering three key updates – a) security for the Open Fronthaul interface covering C-plane, U-plane, S-plane and M-plane, b) security for Near-RT RIC xAPPs and APIs, and c) optional support for Open FH Point to Point LAN security using 802.1x. This version introduces authentication and authorization requirements and security controls for APIs and xAPPs in the Near-RT RIC platform. It also features security requirements for authenticating and validating xAPP images during onboarding.

O-RAN Security Threat Modeling and Remediation Analysis v.3.0

This version introduces Likelihood assessment of the identified threats from the threat model and remediation analysis, and updates technical specification with threats and risk analysis for Near-RT RIC and Non-RT RIC assets, threats, risks, and security controls.

O-RAN Security Test Specifications v2.0

This version introduces test cases for the following features: Point-2-Point LAN Segment, SBOM, Network Protocol Fuzzing, and O1 Interface Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) Validation.

TIFG: Test and Integration Focus Group

2 specifications published since March 2022

O-RAN Certification and Badging Processes and Procedures v4.0

This version of the document includes the following approved CRs:

  • Automating updates to source document versions
  • The variety of certificates and badges in terms of interfaces, subsystems, etc.
  • Alignment of the document to latest Conformance and IOT test specs from WGs
  • Alignment of Chapter 6 to the upcoming E2E Test Spec 3.0
  • Security badging process based on SFG (now WG11) feedbacks

This version also includes the following changes:

  • Adds section 3.3 on available certificates and badges to be issued under this release
  • Adds section 3.1.4 on the composition of O-RAN certificates and badges, revises sections 3.2.8.2 and 3.2.8.4 on test result sharing location and format, and revises the Certificate/Badge reference identifier
  • Revises sections 3.2.5 and 3.2.6 on verifying test results and issuing certificates/badges and revises section 2.3.2 to clarify what equipment can be awarded O-RAN certificate/badges
  • Revises section 4.4.2 to exclude LTE tests in various scenarios when O-RU does not support LTE
  • Many corrections and clean-ups in FH O-RU Conformance Tab inside the companion test report template
  • Many IOT updates in Chapter 5 to align with Nov-2021 WG test specifications
  • Adding all corresponding new test cases in various IOT TABs inside the companion test report template
  • Automating reference version updates inside the companion test report template by adding a “References” tab to list all documents that are referenced on other tabs

O-RAN End-to-end Test Specification v3.0

This version adds chapter 9, RIC-enabled use case test - Traffic Steering connected mode

Chih-Lin I and

Sachin Katti