O-RAN ALLIANCE Summit - Accelerating Open RAN Adoption
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57 new or updated O-RAN specifications released since March 2023

O-RAN specifications set the foundation for open, intelligent, virtualized, and interoperable Radio Access Networks (RAN). They describe different functions and interfaces of the O-RAN Architecture (Figure 1). O-RAN Work Groups (WG) or Focus Groups (FG), each covering different part of the solution, keep strong momentum in specification development.

Since March 2023, O-RAN WGs and FGs published 57 technical documents, bringing the total to 101 specification titles in 438 versions.

Four documents represent new titles:

  • O-RAN Cloud Conformance Test Specification v1.00
    This document, delivered by O-RAN WG6, contains the initial release of the description of Tests for O-Cloud Notification API, O2 IMS, O2 DMS ETSI Profile and O-Cloud Synchronization.
  • O-RAN Application Life Cycle Management (LCM) for Deployment Technical Recommendation v1.00
    This document, delivered by O-RAN WG6, contains the initial release of Deployment Use Cases and Potential Requirements.
  • O-RAN Network Energy Savings Procedures and Performance Metrics v1.00
    This document, delivered by O-RAN WG7, is an initial release of Network Energy Savings technical specification, describing functional procedures for reducing O-RU or O-RU+O-DU energy consumption, and defining related power KPIs.
  • O-RAN Topology Exposure and Inventory Management Services Use Cases and Requirement Specification v1.00
    This document, delivered by O-RAN WG10, leverages the existing content in various O-RAN specifications and specifies new use cases for Topology Exposure and Inventory Management. For each use case, the document describes the motivation, resources, processes involved and the data requirements.

All released O-RAN ALLIANCE specifications, including the recent ones published in July 2023, are available for download on our website.

Figure 1: O-RAN Logical Architecture

WG1: Use Cases and Overall Architecture Work Group

O-RAN Architecture Description v9.00

The O-RAN Architecture Description document specifies the overall architecture of O-RAN. It describes all of the O-RAN functions and relevant interfaces that connect these functions. This version elucidates the role of Y1 consumers within or outside the PLMN trust domain for consuming Y1 services produced by the Near-RT RIC. It further clarifies that the Y1 consumers box depicted in the figures does not denote a logical O-RAN function. In addition to Y1 interface and Y1 consumers, the definitions of SMO External Interface, SMO External System, SMO Functions (SMOFs), and SMO Service (SMOS) have been added. Finally, the description of O-DU has been enhanced to align it with gNB-DU of 3GPP.

O-RAN Slicing Architecture v10.00

This document describes O-RAN slicing related use cases, requirements and architecture. Along with requirements and a reference slicing architecture, slicing related impact to O-RAN functions and interfaces is also captured. This version includes additional content related to exposure of slice management capabilities for multi-Operator use cases.

O-RAN Use Cases Analysis Report v11.00

This document describes potential O-RAN use cases at a very high level, emphasizing how the use case is enabled by the O-RAN architecture along with basic input data expectations and resulting actions. This version includes a new use case “Industrial vision SLA assurance” and minor updates to some of the existing use cases.

O-RAN Use Cases Detailed Specification v11.00

This document describes selected O-RAN use cases in further details to facilitate relevant O-RAN Work Groups to define requirements for associated O-RAN functions and interfaces. This version includes updates to two use cases “Shared O-RU” and “Multi-vendor Slices”, as well as some editorial updates.

O-RAN Network Energy Saving Use Cases Technical Report v2.00

This Technical Report defines overall use cases for Network Energy Savings. The TR v02.00 includes additional use cases, Advanced Sleep Mode Selection and O-Cloud Resource Energy Saving Mode on top of Carrier and Cell Switch Off/On and RF Channel Reconfiguration Off/On released in v1.00.

WG2: The Non-Real-Time RAN Intelligent Controller and A1 Interface Work Group

O-RAN Non-RT RIC & A1 interface: Use Cases andRequirements v7.00

This document describes use cases for the O-RAN A1 interface. This version is aligned with the latest O-RAN TS template. O-RAN drafting rules compliance and ETSI PAS submission requirements will be addressed in the next release.

O-RAN A1 interface: Type Definitions v5.01

This specification defines the data types for A1 Policies and A1 Enrichment Information in a reusable and extensible way. It allows new policy types to be created independently of the generic application protocol parts. This version brings editorial enhancement.

O-RAN Non-RT RIC Architecture v3.00

This document provides the technical specification for the Non-Real-Time RAN Intelligent Controller (Non-RT RIC) architecture. This version introduces the AI/ML workflow services and functions, as well as rApp management services. In addition, RAN OAM-related services and functions are added to replace the O1 related services and functions.

O-RAN R1 interface: General Aspects and Principles v5.00

The O-RAN R1GAP Specification summarizes the R1 interface specification objectives and specifies the principles and procedures related to the O-RAN R1 interface.  In this Version, the O1-related services was updated as RAN OAM related services,  the procedure of update and de-registration of rApp registration services was updated as part of SME, and finally, the O2-deployment management services was updated.

O-RAN R1 interface: Use Cases and Requirements v4.00

This document describes use cases and requirements for the O-RAN R1 interface. This version of specification introduced the RAN OAM related use cases for read configuration and CM get schema, updated the query information for Query performance use case, and added the R1 security requirements to the R1 interface requirements.

O-RAN Transport Protocols for R1 Services v3.00

This document describes transport protocols for the O-RAN R1 interface services. In this version of Specification references of R1 Security protocol requirements was updated as specified in WG11 specifications (Security requirements Specifications and Security protocol specifications). It also removed the duplicated text of the Security requirements in the R1 Transport protocol.

O-RAN Application Protocols for R1 Services v2.00

This new spec provides the API structure for the SME. It also covers the Service registration and discovery. This Version of R1 Application protocols added the versioning of the API’s and Versioning of the Open API’s and this spec also added the API structure for the SME (Service registration and service discovery).

WG3: The Near-Real-Time RAN Intelligent Controller and E2 Interface Workgroup

O-RAN E2 General Aspects and Principles v3.01

This document (E2GAP) together with (E2AP) describes the general architecture of Near-RT RIC and the main functions and procedures supported over the E2 interface, and the E2 application protocol of Near-RT RIC. This version of the specification introduces changes that ensure compliance with O-RAN drafting rules and ETSI PAS submission requirements.

O-RAN E2 Application Protocol (E2AP) v3.01

This document (E2AP) together with (E2GAP) describes the general architecture of Near-RT RIC and the main functions and procedures supported over the E2 interface, and the E2 application protocol of Near-RT RIC. This version of the specification introduces changes that ensure compliance with O-RAN drafting rules and ETSI PAS submission requirements.

O-RAN E2 Service Model (E2SM) v3.01

This document serves as the overall framework for the set of specialized E2SMs, each of which is dedicated to a specific RAN function. This document also includes the common information elements used across the specialized E2SMs. This version of the specification introduces changes that ensure compliance with O-RAN drafting rules and ETSI PAS submission requirements

WG4: The Open Fronthaul Interfaces Work Group

O-RAN Control, User and Synchronization Plane Specification v12.00

This document specifies the control plane, user plane and synchronization plane protocols used over the fronthaul interface. This version brings the following feature introductions/modifications of functionalities:

  • Support of in-band and guard-band NB-IoT
  • IEEE 802.1X supplicant functionality mandatory for O-RU
  • U-Plane message processing limits
  • Indication of non-scheduled Info in channel information-based beamforming
  • Flag in Section Extension 11 to indicate PRB region continuity

Additional clarifications:

  • PRACH terminology
  • Air interface frequency error requirements
  • Clarification to startSymbolId, dirPattern, guardPattern
  • PRACH Section Type 3 control setting
  • ueId clarification
  • Corrections to Annex J
  • Clause 7.4 restructuring

O-RAN Management Plane Specification v12.00

This specification defines the Management Plane for the O-RAN Open Fronthaul based on the selected lower-layer split point as defined within the Open Fronthaul Control Plane, User Plane and Synchronization Plane specification. This version brings the following new functionalities:

  • IEEE 802.1X as MandatoryAdd supported SCSes of FHM
  • Allow all NETCONF clients to change their own password
  • Advanced endpoint capability reporting for NB-IoT & other scenarios
  • Allow CA/RA server on non-production VLAN
  • Introduce ietf-truststore YANG model
  • Introduce SE11-WITH-CONTINUITY-BIT-SUPPORT
  • Addition of feature non-scheduled-ueid
  • Continuity Check Message support
  • U-plane message processing limits

Bug fixes and correction to v11.00:

  • Correct inconsistency in clause 9.1.3
  • Update reference to DHCPv6 Options
  • Remove import of ietf-crypto-types@2019-04-29
  • Confirmation of backwards compatibility
  • Clarification of the accounts name
  • DHCP options clarification
  • Clarify default operation of 802.1X
  • Correction Radio Timing for Copy
  • Correction to shared cell counters
  • Clarification of PRACH repetition
  • Clarified operational state for layer 3 configuration
  • Remove erroneous use of SZTP

O-RAN Fronthaul Interoperability Test Specification (IOT) v10.00

This document specifies the interoperability testing (IOT) for O-DU and O-RU from different vendors connected using the O-RAN fronthaul (FH) interface. This version brings new capabilities, including:

  • Introduction of modifiable and forbidden parameters in the Customized IOT Configuration
  • Bug fixes and clarification to V09.00 including:
    - Modification of delay management test need to determine SFN
    - Alignments with the O-RAN document template

O-RAN Conformance Test Specification v8.00

This document defines tests that validate the conformance to the protocols defined for the Lower Layer

Split interface between the O-RU and the O-DU. This version provides the following M-Plane Test additions and corrections:

  • Add SUPERVISION-WITH-SESSION-ID optional test
  • Add FTPES test requirement for TLS test cases
  • Correction to mandatory/conditional mandatory in descriptions or summary table for consistency
  • Connection supervision test step example corrections
  • UC-Plane Test corrections and clarifications
  • Section Description Priorities with C and U-Plane coupling via time and frequency
  • Section Type 3 PRACH power formula and clarifications for SNR and AWGN
  • rbg mask values in test Section Extension for Non-contiguous PRB Allocation
  • S-Plane Test additions and corrections
  • Performance Test alternate noise generation method for O-RU testing
  • 1 PPS diagnostic test measurement description for O-DU testing
  • Remove requirement to use optional SMO O-1 methods to configure O-DU

O-RAN Cooperative Transport Interface Transport Control Plane Specification v.4.00

This specification describes the Cooperative Transport Interface (CTI) and related message protocol when the fronthaul between the O-DU and O-RU is realized via a resource allocation-based transport network. This version brings several updates.

Editorial: conforming to TSC document drafting rules, including:

  • Formattings
  • Use of modal verbs

Clarifications of existing mechanisms and terms, including:

  • Use of the term “radio carrier”
  • O-RU (interface) can be managed by multiple CTI clients and messages
  • Interpretation in CTI Server of a single or a group of messages
  • Meaning of CTI_MIN
  • Meaning of CTI Table size
  • mapping of reports into CTI message
  • Combinations and examples of rows in single CTI message
  • use of type 2 extension row
  • Removal of section 5.2.1.2 which was superseded by CTI TMP v3

O-RAN Cooperative Transport Interface Transport Management Procedures Specification v4.00

This document describes the Transport Management Procedures for the Cooperative Transport Interface (CTI). This version brings several updates.

Editorial: conforming to TSC document drafting rules, including:

  • Formattings
  • Use of modal verbs

Completion and update of Information Model for CTI Client in O-DU, including:

  • Definition of new CTIFunction IOC acting as umbrella function for the whole CTI client functionality
  • Change of some elements from Information Object Class to Data Type
  • Updated relationships between IOCs and DTs
  • Updated Class and Type definitions
  • Updated attribute definitions
  • Updated graphical representation of CTI Client IM/DM

Completion and update of Data Model for CTI Client in O-DU:

  • Update of “o-ran-cti-common“ and “o-ran-o1-ctiOdu” YANG files as approved by WG5
  • Update of Annex A tree structures for both YANG files
  • Inclusion of CTI Server Data Model (YANG files) as informative Annex B

WG5: The Open F1/W1/E1/X2/Xn Interface Work Group

O-RAN O1 Interface specification for O-DU v7.00

The scope of O1 interface for O-DU spec is to describe the supported management features including “start-up” installation, PNF software management, provisioning management, performance management, fault management and file management towards the O-DU via O1 interface. This spec also includes O-DU related performance counters, information models, and data models.

This version of the specification adds:

  • Chapter 13 – Shared O-RU introduction
  • Chapter 14 – Information model for Shared O-RU
  • Added mentions of 5QI to particular PM counters
  • Editorial fixes

O-RAN O1 Interface specification for O-CU-UP and O-CU-CP v5.00

The scope of O1 interface for O-CU spec is to describe the supported management features including “start-up” installation, PNF software management, provisioning management, performance management, fault management and file management towards the O-CU-CP and O-CU-UP via O1 interface. This spec also includes O-CU related performance counters and information models.

This version of the specification adds:

  • Updates to Performance counters in Annex A
  • Addition of an Information Model for CUCountGroup in Chapter 9
  • Editorial fixes

O-RAN Interoperability Test Specification (IOT) v7.00

The scope of WG5 IOT spec is to specify interoperability tests for RAN Node from different vendors implemented in accordance to the WG5 C-plane and U-plane profiles in the specification WG5.C.1.

Main Updates compared to v06.00

  • Adding new test cases for F1, Xn and X2 interfaces
  • Correcting existing test cases
  • Adding a new subsection specifying network scenarios and applicable test cases. These scenarios can be used by O-RAN.TIFG for the envisaged verification and badging procedures.  

O-RAN NR C-plane profile v10.00

The scope of C-Plane profile spec is to further clarify (i.e. profile) for each RAN node the expected behavior (still within the scope of the 3GPP specifications). E.g., Usage of IEs for each use case, general behavior of each node, etc.

C-Plane profile spec contains profiles of X2/F1/Xn C-Plane procedure for EN-DC use cases, NR-SA use cases and NR-DC use cases.

Main Updates compared to v09.00

  • Adding new use cases for NR-DC, EN-DC and SA
  • Including corrections to existing use cases

WG6: The Cloudification and Orchestration Work Group

O-RAN O2 Interface General Aspects and Principles v4.00

This specification outlines the general aspects and principles of the O2 interface. This version adds IMS Provisioning Concepts.

O-RAN O2ims Interface Specification v4.00

This specification outlines the general aspects and principles of the O2 interface. This version adds PM Information Model.

O-RAN O2dms Interface Specification: Kubernetes Native API Profile for Containerized NFs v3.00

This specification outlines the deployment management services of the O2dms interface profile based on Kubernetes Native API for containerized NFs. This version adds Healing.

O-RAN O2dms Interface Specification: Profile based on ETSI NFV Protocol and Data Models v4.00

This specification outlines the deployment management services of the O2dms interface profile based on ETSI NFV protocol and data models. This version adds AAL Mapping.

O-RAN Cloudification and Orchestration Use Cases and Requirements for O-RAN Virtualized RAN v7.00

This document contains use cases for O-RAN orchestration of virtualized RAN and the associated requirements on interfaces used for management and orchestration. This version adds 15 new updated use cases.

O-RAN Cloud Conformance Test Specification v1.00

This document contains the initial release of the description of Tests for O-Cloud Notification API, O2 IMS, O2 DMS ETSI Profile and O-Cloud Synchronization.

O-RAN Application Life Cycle Management (LCM) for Deployment Technical Recommendation v1.00

This document contains the initial release of Deployment Use Cases and Potential Requirements.

O-RAN Acceleration Abstraction Layer General Aspects and Principles v6.00

This specification defines O-RAN O-Cloud hardware accelerator interface functions and protocols for the O-RAN AAL interface, including configuration and management functions, procedures, operations and corresponding solutions. This version brings updated terminology.

O-RAN Acceleration Abstraction Layer Common API v4.00

This specification focuses on the Common API related to common aspects of accelerator abstraction from an administration and application perspective. This version brings Updates on Terminology, Fault Management, Inventory Functions and HW Installation/Bootstrap.

O-RAN Acceleration Abstraction Layer High-PHY Profiles v5.00

This document details the AAL specification consisting of the description of the interface, information models and requirements to implement an AALI, for the AAL_DOWNLINK_High-PHY and AAL_UPLINK_High-PHY profiles. This version brings Updates on Naming Conventions

WG7: White-box Hardware Work Group

O-RAN Hardware Reference Design Specification for Outdoor Macrocell with Split Architecture Option 7.2 v3.00

This document describes the white box Outdoor Macrocell Hardware Reference Designs of O-CU, O-DU, and O-RU based on deployment scenario and base station classes specification for O-RAN Split option 7-2x. Specific devices and their part numbers are recorded in respective annex. This version brings revised Section 2.2 the O-DU/O-CU specification and updated Annex.

O-RAN Network Energy Savings Procedures and Performance Metrics v1.00

Initial release of Network Energy Savings technical spec, describing functional procedures for reducing O-RU or O-RU+O-DU energy consumption, and defining related power KPIs.

O-RAN Hardware Reference Design Specification for Outdoor Micro Cell with Split Architecture Option 7.2 v4.00

This document specifies the hardware reference design as required by architecture and requirements for the Outdoor Microcell and deployment scenario and base station classes specifications. This version brings addition of Optional Die to Die Interfacing in section 2.3.2.3.

WG8: Stack Reference Design Work Group

O-RAN Base Station O-DU and O-CU Software Architecture and APIs v9.00

This specification defines the O-CU and O-DU software architecture, functional blocks, and API definitions. This version includes description of non-GoB massive MIMO flow, configuration and E2 interaction for mMIMO.

O-RAN Stack Interoperability Test Specification v7.00

This specification defines interoperability test cases for O-CU and O-DU. This version includes new test cases for security, PTP sync and v-OCU and v-ODU.

WG9: Open X-haul Transport Work Group

O-RAN Xhaul Packet Switched Architectures and Solutions v5.00

This document is intended to describe best practices for O-RAN transport based on end-to-end packet switching technology. Version 05.00 document introduces small enhancements to IEEE 802.1X section to align with WG11 efforts.

O-RAN Management interfaces for Transport Network Elements v6.00

This document is intended to describe best practices for O-RAN transport Network Element (TNE) management interfaces. Version 06.00 added content in section 9.3 and Annex A in support of the network slicing use case for the transport network.

WG10: OAM Work Group

O-RAN Operations and Maintenance Architecture v9.00

The O-RAN OAM Architecture identifies management services, functions and interfaces supported in O-RAN, including the interworking between SMO and O-RAN O-Cloud components. Requirements are derived from end-to-end OAM use cases, including the initial provisioning of O-RAN service across VNFs and PNFs and the collection of measurement data.

O-RAN Operations and Maintenance Interface Specification v10.00

This document specifies management services for the O-RAN O1 interface and includes requirements, notifications and protocols. This version applies significant re-structuring and clean-up for compliance with O-RAN and ETSI drafting rules.

O-RAN Information Model and Data Models Specification v5.00

The O-RAN Information Model and Data Models document specifies the Information Model and the Data Models that are foundational for O-RAN’s model-driven architecture and for the functions carried out over O-RAN interfaces. This version applies significant re-structuring and clean-up for compliance with O-RAN and ETSI drafting rules.

O-RAN Topology Exposure and Inventory Management Services Use Cases and Requirement Specification v1.00

The document leverages the existing content in various O-RAN specifications and specifies new use cases for Topology Exposure and Inventory Management. For each use case, the document describes the motivation, resources, processes involved and the data requirements.

WG11: Security Work Group

O-RAN Security Requirements Specification v6.0

This document specifies security requirements and controls for O-RAN defined interfaces and network functions. In version 6 of this technical specifications, multiple changes have been added, including IEEE 802.1X supplicant made mandatory for the vendor to support in O-RU, SBOM requirement made mandatory, O-Cloud infrastructure must now support authentication and authorization of management users, as well as updates on the references and addition to 3GPP references for gNB and eNB. In additional to this, new requirements have been added:

  • SMO Security: General SMO, O2 Interface, and external Interfaces;
  • O-Cloud: protection of O2 interface, O-Cloud notification APIs, AAL interfaces and components;
  • AppLCM: security descriptor and secure update for apps/VNFs/CNFs

O-RAN Security Protocols Specifications v6.00

This document contains security protocol specifications for an O-RAN-compliant implementation. In the new version, the image protection section has been updated to cover now all cryptographic operations.

O-RAN Security Threat Modeling and Remediation Analysis v6.00

The WG11 threat model and remediation analysis report identifies the various assets that are at risk, outlines the potential security threats that O-RAN system may face, along with security principles on how to mitigate these risks. The report then evaluates the likelihood and potential impact of the identified threats on the O-RAN system.

In this version v6 of the report, new assets and threats against the O-Cloud AAL (Abstraction Acceleration Layer) and the O-RAN applications during their lifecycle phases have been included.

O-RAN Security Test Specifications v4.00

These specifications validate the proper implementation of security requirements and protocols, emulate security attacks, and validate the effectiveness of security mitigation methods. Four new change requests were added in version 4.0. These include image signing and verification (xApps and rApps), security tests of xApps and rApps, security tests of Non-RT RIC, in addition to the previous versions changes.

O-RAN Study on Security for O-Cloud v3.00

The O-Cloud security technical report analyses the security of O-Cloud components and interfaces. It includes a risk assessment of the cloud deployment models (Private, Community, Public and Hybrid), identifies the assets that need to be protected, identifies potential security risks and vulnerabilities, and proposes recommendations and best practices for reducing risks and improving the security of O-Cloud. The identified assets, threats and recommendations are intended to be part of O-RAN security related specifications.

In this version v3 of the report, new assets and threats against the O-Cloud AAL (Abstraction Acceleration Layer) have been included.

O-RAN Study on Security for Application Lifecycle Management v2.00

This technical report on the security for application lifecycle management considers security of O-RAN applications during their lifecycle phases of development, onboarding, and operation. O-RAN applications in the scope of the technical report include VNFs/CNFs as well as software for physical network functions. The report presents key issues developed from identified threats and proposes solutions in order to derive security requirements for technical specifications.

O-RAN Study on Security Log Management v2.00

This technical report considers the security log management as far as it applies to entities defined in the O-RAN architecture. The study analyzes a list of key issues on Security logs contents (payload), Security logs transfer mechanisms and Security logs formats/schemas and proposes solutions in order to derive security requirements, intended to be part of O-RAN security related specifications.

O-RAN Study on Security for Service Management and Orchestration (SMO) v2.00

This technical report documents a security analysis for the SMO. The TR provides assets, threats, risk scoring, and recommended security controls across 3 threat groups: SMO, O2 interface, and External Interfaces. Threat analysis is based upon the STRIDE model and risk scoring is based upon likelihood and impact. Recommended security controls were used to form normative SMO security requirements.

O-RAN Study on Security for Shared O-RU (SharedORU) v2.00

This technical report documents a security analysis for the Shared O-RU with consideration of each of the 5 architectural options. The TR provides assets, threats, risk scoring, and recommended security controls across 6 threat groups. Threat analysis is based upon the STRIDE model and risk scoring is based upon likelihood and impact. Recommended security controls will be used to form normative Shared O-RU security requirements.

O-RAN Study on Security for Near-Real-Time RIC and xApps v3.00

This technical report considers the security aspects of the Near-RT RIC platform and xApps, as well as the associated network and management interfaces (E2, A1, O1) and APIs.

The study analyzes a list of key issues in the Near-RT RIC overall architecture and proposes solutions in order to derive security requirements.

TIFG: Test and Integration Focus Work Group

O-RAN Certification and Badging Processes and Procedures v7.0

This document describes the certification and badging processes and associated detailed technical procedures for the Open Testing and Integration Centres (OTIC) and various other testing entities.

The Objectives and scope of this document:

  • CR on available certificates/badges, clarification on tests to be passed, and version of test specifications
  • CR on storing and sharing of summary report, test reports and measurement results

This version of document brings changes from previous version:

  • Clarification of available certificates and badges (Chapters 5.3, 6, 7, 8)
  • Adding subsystem combined O-DU/O-CU to OpenFH
  • Clarification of the tests which need to be passed (conducted) – Chapters 6, 7, 8
  • Updated process in Chapter 5.2
  • Clarification of issuing of certificates and badges
  • Updated processes for storing and sharing of summary report, test reports and measurement results